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Most late Quaternary eruptions are dated by 14 C measurements on material from close to the volcano that may be contaminated by geologic-sourced infinite-age carbon. Here we show that 14 C ages for the Taupo New Zealand First Millennium eruption are geographically arrayed, with oldest ages closer to the vent. We present evidence that the older, vent-proximal 14 C ages were biased by magmatic CO 2 degassed from groundwater, and that the Taupo eruption occurred decades to two centuries after CE.
Our reinterpretation implies that ages for other proximally-dated, unobserved, eruptions may also be too old. Radiometric dating of pre- and early historic volcanic eruptions based on tephra-chronologic control of terrestrial, ice-, lake-, and ocean-core stratigraphy underpins assessment of volcanic hazards 1 and volcanogenic climate change 2 , 3.
Contamination of samples by carbon containing non-equilibrium levels of 14 C can distort radiocarbon ages 4 , 5. The use of inaccurate radiometric eruption dates, particularly for events that occurred remote from contemporary literate societies, can bias a chronology and affect interpretations of data keyed to that chronology, from archaeology 6 , 7 to volcano-climatic connections 2 , 3.
Users rarely, however, question the basis for a chronology. The TVZ hosts a 4. The Taupo eruption has been the subject of one of the most intensive 10 , 11 , 14 , and earliest 15 , uses of radiocarbon for dating prehistoric eruptions. The agreement between the results of the two dates, led to the rejection of previously-measured ages, many of which were geologically younger than the wiggle match dates Radiocarbon ages for the Taupo First Millennium eruption in relation to distance and direction from the eruptive vent.
Outer wood wiggle match age distribution in red. Legend shows age gradient and dated materials. Here we evaluate the pre-wiggle match 14 C ages for the Taupo eruption and reveal a relationship between increasing distance from the vent and decreasing 14 C age of samples associated with the eruption. Similar plateauing was observed in records for other eruptions. The median age for the final rings of the second wiggle match tree was amongst the oldest.
The median ages are geographically as well as linearly arrayed Fig. A combined calibrated date OxCal 4. The distribution of median values for 50 random radiocarbon ages based on the wiggle match age of CE, with measurement errors set at 25 years similar to those of the wiggle match series , did not resemble the data range in Fig. Many of the pre-wiggle match radiocarbon measurements were on wood or charcoal and were measured before the possibility of inbuilt age of wood or charcoal when the sample was from non-peripheral wood or small twigs was fully taken into account.
Inbuilt age bias cannot apply to a wiggle match age so we offer a more likely and mechanistically supported explanation for this geographic array. The radial geographic pattern centred on the volcano Fig. Radiocarbon measurements on dissolved inorganic carbon DIC in Lake Taupo water, and on plants and animals 20 in the lake food web, yielded ages of c. New Zealand scaup feed on aquatic plants and invertebrates 21 , 22 and brown rats are omnivores, swim well, and in shoreline habitats, as at Lake Taupo, they obtain food by diving Euryapteryx curtus , and for Taupo lake water.
Box-whisker plots maximum, minimum, median, lower and upper quartiles; numbers, sample sizes: Note axis breaks. Lake Taupo: Surface outflow from Lake Taupo potentially perturbs 14 C ages of samples downstream from Lake Taupo 20 , as it does downstream of Long Valley Caldera in California 25 , but the magmatic CO 2 must contaminate the groundwater throughout the volcanic zone, providing a secondary source of CO 2 for vegetation Even when diluted by recharge from other catchments, the groundwater source of 14 C-depleted CO 2 would bias radiocarbon dates in the Waikato valley beyond the Taupo volcanic zone The wiggle match tree was at The groundwater is continuous with both the lake and the river so a contamination offset should be present though not necessarily large.
The Suess Effect has been factored into the values plotted in Fig. This environment provided an ideal situation for uptake of respiratory 5 and magmatic CO 2 by roots 26 and degassed from the soil subcanopy leaves before it mixed with tropospheric reservoir CO 2. Soon after post-eruptive revegetation of the Taupo region, five of these large c. The minimum offset of years in NZA would require that the sample included at least 3. Successive combinations of the radiocarbon ages maintained the date ranges for the three youngest ages, but constraining the oldest moa age to post-eruption violated the combinatorial and phase algorithms Supplementary Fig.
However, we suggest that these anomalous ages may also reflect the effect of magmatic CO 2 in the groundwater on the terrestrial components of the diet 40 because two 14 C ages on a sheep Ovis aries metatarsal from the same site, presumably unaffected by a marine diet, were also several decades too old The sheep and humans were consuming vegetation that grew on the flanks of Vesuvius 41 or within the Campi Flegrei caldera 42 and hence the 14 C ages of their bones contain a legacy from the CO 2 degassed from the magma bodies.
After c. Carbon isotope ratios plateaued or declined as the eruptions approached. Fractionation during degassing is governed by the CO 2 concentration in the groundwater The period of 30—50 years excludes the possibility that the fluctuations are seasonal. This would be a fruitful area of future research and an independent test of our contamination hypothesis. At night, CO 2 respired by the non-photosynthesising vegetation accumulates beneath a dense canopy 4 , 37 , and as the highest net photosynthesis occurs in the morning 4 , the respired CO 2 and any both biospheric and magmatic degassed from the soil contributes disproportionately to the stem wood.
Degassing of CO 2 from magma and carbonate rock has been reported from several regions and at different scales 46 and may have affected radiocarbon ages for eruptions. Several wiggle match dates 47 , 48 for a major eruption of Baitoushan-Tianchi volcano on the border of North Korea and China, securely dated by dendrochronology to CE 49 , are variably offset from the calibration curve depending on their location in the forest and distance from the crater.
Baitoushan-Tianchi inhabited a favourable section of the calibration curve, with pronounced age peaks and troughs at the eruption age. This highlighted the old offsets of wiggles from the calibration curve and led to unsubstantiated speculations about a magmatic carbon bias 50 , The Rabaul wiggle consisted of only 5 points, anchored by an ambiguous calibration.
One age was questionably an outlier. Two dates for the Taupo eruption unbiased by magmatic CO 2 , were obtained from stratigraphically controlled samples bracketing the ignimbrite in the Hukanui Pool site 54 , 55 , c. The most proximal Baitoushan-Tianchi wiggle match ages imply substantially less 0. Dates for the Taupo eruption from a stratigraphic sequence outside the influence of Taupo Volcanic Zone groundwater.
All dates place the Taupo eruption significantly later than CE. The probability distribution for the boundary between the Hukanui Pool pre- and post-ignimbrite ages had a broad peak between and CE , with a long 'later' tail, resulting from the greater number of pre-ignimbrite dates. Gallirallus australis on the surface of the ignimbrite 54 is therefore possible.
The It is possible, therefore that the offset resulting from geologic CO 2 contamination may be 50— years as above up to the c. An unrecognised offset of 50— years in a radiocarbon-determined date for an eruption would invalidate any correlation between that eruption date and ice core records or climatic events. Our demonstration that the 14 C samples used to date the Taupo eruption were contaminated by on-edifice magmatic carbon implies that 14 C ages on vent-proximal material for other eruptions may be similarly affected by contamination.
Stratigraphic chronologies which use the Taupo and other tephras or sulphate signals in the calibration process will need to be reconsidered. The Tierra Blanca Joven eruption of Ilopango volcano, El Salvador, implicated in global climatic events 56 , is one such, as well as being important in the local archaeology chronology.
Further, archaeological radiocarbon chronologies in volcanically active regions, such as the Mediterranean and Central and South America, may require reanalysis. The magnitude of magmatic carbon contamination will depend on the structure of the volcanic edifice and the local climate and exposure of the dated vegetation. For example, the Santorini wiggle match ages 57 may be only marginally biased, because the wiggle match olive tree was exposed to strong winds on a mountainside in a dry environment.
Errors of a few decades can be significant in some archaeological contexts, as with the 14th century Kaharoa eruption of Mt Tarawera in the Taupo volcanic zone. As a key event in Pacific prehistory chronology 6 , 7 , an error of 50 years would significantly affect interpretation of the date of Polynesian settlement of New Zealand. Our reanalysis of the radiocarbon ages for the Taupo ignimbrite eruption provides the first demonstration of regional biasing of 14 C eruption ages by magmatic carbon We suggest that the underlying mechanism is injection of magmatic CO 2 into the regional groundwater, which has a significant magmatic component The results emphasise problems associated with proximal carbon dating and highlight the importance of distal dating of eruptions 59 , especially those used for stratigraphic correlation.
Our methodology for identifying magma carbon bias could result in the re-dating and reinterpretation of many eruptions, with important implications for correlations with climate change, human and animal migration, and cultural adaptation. Two mm diameter cores c. Core holes were sloped c. Both trees were sampled to only a fraction of their radius, with ring counts dating to the middle of the 18th century CE GM1 and the late 17th century GM2.
A prism was cut from the centre to the bark of the sectioned butt of a wind-thrown rimu Dacrydium cupressinum tree on the south bank of the Fox River, Paparoa National Park, on the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand The resulting images were enlarged to facilitate ring counts. No attempt was made to match ring width sequences between trees, as the objective was not dendrochronology per se.
The time periods represented by the rings of each tree are only approximate, because we ignored potential errors such as multiple growth rings per year, years lacking rings, and counting errors associated with closely-spaced rings. Decadal samples were cut from the cores and prism at varying intervals c. Conventional wiggle match dating involves matching dates from samples separated by independently attested numbers of years for trees as recorded by annual tree rings to variations wiggles in calibration curves.
If a statistically significant match is obtained, age bias is taken to be excluded The problem can be avoided, and potential circularity removed, by noting that wiggle match 14 C samples are related, to the degrees of certainty inherent in the ring counts 57 , to each other by a known number of calendar years. The probability distributions of each calibrated age in calendar time are therefore independent measures of the calendar age of any other sample from the same tree.
The date of interest for an eruption—that of the death of the tree killed by it—is the date of the last outer ring: For the second Taupo wiggle match series of 25 14 C ages, the date of peak probability for the published ages was identical CE, Fig. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Oppenheimer, C. Eruptions that shook the world. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Sigl, M.
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