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S1, EP 52: Dates on a Plane

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. A Nature Research Journal.

Large-scale landslides at volcanic islands are one of the most dangerous geological phenomena, able to generate tsunamis whose effects can propagate far from the source. However, related deposits are scarcely preserved on-land in the geologic records, and are often difficult to be interpreted. Here we show the discovery of three unprecedented well-preserved tsunami deposits related to repeated flank collapses of the volcanic island of Stromboli Southern Italy occurred during the Late Middle Ages.

Based on carbon datings, on stratigraphic, volcanological and archaeological evidence, we link the oldest, highest-magnitude investigated tsunami to the following rapid abandonment of the island which was inhabited at that time, contrary than previously thought. The portrayed devastation can be potentially attributed to the arrival of multiple tsunami waves generated by a major landslide in Stromboli island, confirming the hypothetical hazard of these phenomena at a regional scale.

However, the prosperity of the settlements on the island since the Late Neolithic had to periodically face the threat of the volcano whose craters are located less than two kilometers from the coastline. During the last centuries, numerous eruptive crises frightened the inhabitants and severely hit the settled areas 1. It is therefore possible that the island was repeatedly abandoned in the past due to the insecurity and physical impacts induced by the activity of the volcano. A General map of Stromboli showing the studied area in the red box.

Inset shows the localization of Stromboli in the Tyrrhenian Sea. B Aerial view, from north to south, of Stromboli Google Earth image with location of trenches and of the archaeological site of San Vincenzo. In the background, other islands of the Aeolian Archipelago and Sicily are shown. Inset show the localization of Stromboli in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

C Detail of the area close to the coastline, with location of the trenches Map data: A coordinated archaeological-volcanological research project was launched in to investigate the events that took place on the island in the Late Middle Ages. While for the two youngest tsunami events the attribution is not conclusive, the poorly understood, sea storm witnessed in the port of Naples by the writer Petrarch Francesco Petrarca on November 25, 2 , was likely attributable to the oldest discovered tsunami whose origin can be placed at Stromboli and which induced the rapid abandonment of the island.

An in-depth analysis of deposits accumulated in the NE sector of Stromboli island was undertaken with the goal at investigating the possible presence of traces of significant volcanic and tsunami events occurred in recent times. For this purpose, three trenches Trench 1 to 3; Fig. The three trenches align roughly with the active craters and the archaeological site of San Vincenzo.

Both the position of the trenches and the explored depth interval were effective in bringing to light the main volcanic and marine events of the past years. The three trenches crossed a succession of well-structured, unconsolidated sediments with some individual beds showing excellent lateral continuity Fig. The most prominent feature of the succession was the presence of three beds that we interpret as tsunami deposits based on their striking sedimentological characteristics 3 , 4.

These beds were found to overlie, via sharp, locally erosive contacts, massive, fine-grained deposits of continental origin consisting of weakly altered, fine-grained, airborne ash. The bed-forming sandy and pebble materials show spectacular similarity in composition and color with the present-day beach sediments backdrop near the shore, beach and coastal dune. One Euro coin in A for scale is The red arrow in A indicate a ceramic tile. T2 consists of two, red and black ash to lapilli tephra beds and of an ocher-colored bed, related to deposition of tephra from explosive activity at summit craters together with dust fallout from landslide activity.

The lowermost bed LTd is the thickest, coarser-grained and most widespread. The nature of bed-forming materials, thickness and grain-size features, and related inland variations of the grain-size parameters are all consistent in indicating an origin from transport of the materials away from the shore by a high-energy tsunami wave.

A further relevant feature of LTd deposit in the trench nearer to the present shoreline, is the presence of two finer-grained, lower, normally-graded, sub-beds and a coarser, reversely-graded, locally clast-supported upper sub-bed Fig. The sequence suggests the tsunami event consisted of multiple waves, occurred in succession with the last one having greater energy. It is composed of loose black sand and sporadic rounded cm-sized pebbles Fig. The upper sandy bed UTd has again similar lithologic features and an analogous decrease of thickness and pebble diameter moving from the coast inland.

On the other hand, the sharp contact between the continental fine-grained ash and the sandy deposits also excludes that beds could be the result of erratic shoreline migrations sea transgression-regression cycles. It is worth to note that the three tsunamis were by far more energetic than any event that occurred in the last two centuries at Stromboli 5 , 6 as we know from deposit studies and descriptions of the historical activity.

In addition to the tsunami beds, we identified two primary, lapilli-bearing, ash fallout layers tephra immediately below the LTd and at the top of UTd deposits. The reworked sediments suggest that the explosive eruption that caused the deposition of T1 occurred sometime before months to years the tsunami event. Tephra T2 consists of a bed-set including, from base to top: The T2 tephra bed-set directly overlies the unaltered and not reworked sand of UTd indicating that a short time lapse separated the tsunami from T2 Fig.

Microscopic examination of the lowermost ocher-colored ash material revealed that the ash grains consist of coarse-grained fresh juvenile component mixed with fine-grained lithic altered material. Such features are consistent with the deposition of tephra from explosive activity at summit craters together with dust fallout from landslide activity. The lack of intra-bed reworking indicates that UTd, and the entire T2 tephra bed-set were all emplaced in rapid succession within a short time interval days to months.

Tephra T1 and T2 exhibit features typical of the largest explosive events of the present activity of the volcano paroxysmal explosions 1 , 7 , 8 , 9. From the record of the past two centuries it is well known that these events are capable of producing cm-thick accumulation of tephra up to the coast line, local shower of ballistic blocks, arrival of powerful shock waves, and ignition of wildfires in the vegetation 1 , 10 , The ages of the volcanic and tsunami deposits crossed by the trenches were constrained by means of three 14 C dates on charcoal fragments found directly below the tsunami and tephra deposits.

Dating of T2 bed-set from a charcoal fragment embedded in the ocher-colored ash bed St yielded a calibrated age of — AD. This location provides a remarkable visual control over the southern Tyrrhenian Sea and its entrance from the strait of Messina The site has been investigated since with a multidisciplinary approach 13 , 14 , 15 , Medieval occupation on Stromboli was previously unknown, though it is known for Lipari, revealing a completely new settlement and occupation scenario.

The medieval history of the Aeolian Islands was closely tied to that of Sicily. Due to a succession dispute in the 13 th cent. During this long period of conflict, Sicily experienced economic difficulties, made worse by the Black Death of the mid th cent. In the 15 th cent. At San Vincenzo, medieval buildings and graves have been discovered in the North area Fig. Both the medieval buildings and the channel are lined by a tephra sequence consisting of: Thickness, grain-size and components of individual beds forming the tephra sequence are identical to those shown by tephra T2 observed in the trenches along the coast, allowing an unequivocal correlation among them.

Excavation wall vertical face; above and plan below of the medieval building and graves n. Graves found within the religious building consist of shallow pits dug through the layer of collapsed tiles, suggesting that burials occurred immediately after its collapse. The main medieval building is a small church with a tile roof and a semicircular stone apse, large paving stones, and an adjoining room on its northern side. Three graves were discovered in the apse and the northern room Fig.

The apse area is characterized by a complex concave stratigraphy, with holes and pits caused by post-depositional processes that partly disturbed the original sequence of layers, in turn sealed by tephra T2 Fig. Noteworthy, for the purposes of precise dating, is the discovery of numerous coins. Photo of the grave 5 in the area North of the archaeological excavation. The chronological reconstruction is based on chrono-typological and radiometric evidence.

A tile from the apse is older — AD while one from the northern room is more recent — AD. Petrographic analyses of tiles and other ceramics show imports from Sicily or Calabria as well as local products Some tiles are decorated with finger-impressed wavy lines Fig. S7 , a style with parallels in southern Italy dated to the 11 th —13 th cent 20 , Remains of three individuals have been discovered, two of which have been dated by 14 C.

Two were buried in a room immediately north of the apse graves 5 and 6 , oriented west-east with the head toward west and a stone nearby indicating the position Fig. The grave pits were dug through the layer of collapsed tiles; this stratigraphic position suggests the burials occurred immediately after collapse of the building. Grave 4 was located in the apse in connection with a gap of the stone floor paving, the body being only partially preserved. Four annular buckles were found in close association with the skeleton of grave 5 Fig.

They appear to have been fasteners for some dress accessory such as a complex belt, worn by the person buried in the grave. All four are very similar in shape, size, and material and can be dated to the late medieval period from the late 13 th to 14 th cent. Nineteen identifiable medieval coins 23 provide the most specific information about the chronology of medieval occupation: The earliest are two denari of Charles I of Anjou, who was king of Sicily from to The latest coin is a denaro from the joint reign of Maria and Martin I of Sicily — The two coins of Charles I were struck before he lost the control of Sicily in , so the minimum possible chronological range for these coins is to Most of the coins were produced before ; however, four coins were certainly produced after The abundant Sicilian coinage of Frederick II — has not been found at San Vincenzo so far, and the abundant Sicilian coinage of Alfonso — has also not been found All the most relevant chronological information, 14 C and archaeological ages along with previous paleo-magnetic dates 25 , 26 , are plotted in Fig.

The data provide a tight temporal constraint for human and natural events on Stromboli in the time interval between and AD. With respect to Event II, the ages consist of 14 C ages obtained on charcoal fragments collected immediately below the UTd in the trenches and directly below the T2 tephra in the archaeological site.

The correlation of T2 tephra bed-set between the two areas is unequivocal, so all of the ages constrain the same composite event. Synthetic chrono-stratigraphical diagram with evidence collected in the trenches and in the archaeological site. Age control is from eleven 14 C ages, two thermoluminescence ages, and two archaeo-paleomagnetic ages 25 , In addition, dates from recovered material includes two coin ages, one from the usage of a belt buckle found in the grave 5, and one by the decorative style of the tiles.

The mean values of 14 C ages having more than one intercept with the calibration curve are graphically represented with circles of different diameters for different probabilities. The year of suspected occurrence of tsunamis through letters and past chronicles is also reported with blue dots: Bonincontri 2 , event by B. De Bindis Archaeological evidence and relative chronological constraints enable us to establish that in the Late Middle Ages, a significant human community was present on the island during the Crusades period likely due to the strategic position of Stromboli on the naval routes heading from Europe to the strait of Messina Phase I; Fig.

The excavation of the building also established that the structure suddenly suffered a traumatic, never restored, collapse of the roof.

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S1 Ep11 The Urban Dating Adventures of Arthur B. Stark

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Say Thanks to the Authors Click http: To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactive content, visit www. CK Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K market both in the U. Using an open-content, web-based collaborative model termed the FlexBook, CK intends to pioneer the generation and distribution of high-quality educational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptive environment for learning, powered through the FlexBook Platform. Copyright CK Foundation, www. Any form of reproduction of this book in any format or medium, in whole or in sections must include the referral attribution link http: Complete terms can be found at http: January 31, Define radioactive dating. Describe how radioactive dating works. Explain how carbon dating can be used to date the remains of living things.

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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. A Nature Research Journal. Large-scale landslides at volcanic islands are one of the most dangerous geological phenomena, able to generate tsunamis whose effects can propagate far from the source.

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