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The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic script and Demotic script, respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek. As the decree has only minor differences between the three versions, the Rosetta Stone proved to be the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs, thereby opening a window into ancient Egyptian history. The stone, carved during the Hellenistic period , is believed to have originally been displayed within a temple , possibly at nearby Sais. It was probably moved during the early Christian or medieval period , and was eventually used as building material in the construction of Fort Julien near the town of Rashid Rosetta in the Nile Delta.
It was the first Ancient Egyptian bilingual text recovered in modern times, and it aroused widespread public interest with its potential to decipher this previously untranslated hieroglyphic language. Lithographic copies and plaster casts began circulating among European museums and scholars. British troops having meanwhile defeated the French, under the Capitulation of Alexandria in the original stone came into British possession and was transported to London. It has been on public display at the British Museum almost continuously since and is the most-visited object there.
Study of the decree was already under way when the first full translation of the Greek text appeared in Major advances in the decoding were recognition that the stone offered three versions of the same text ; that the demotic text used phonetic characters to spell foreign names ; that the hieroglyphic text did so as well, and had pervasive similarities to the demotic Thomas Young , ; and that, in addition to being used for foreign names, phonetic characters were also used to spell native Egyptian words Champollion, — Ever since its rediscovery, the stone has been the focus of nationalist rivalries, including its transfer from French to British possession during the Napoleonic Wars , a long-running dispute over the relative value of Young and Champollion's contributions to the decipherment and, since , demands for the stone's return to Egypt.
The Rosetta Stone is, therefore, no longer unique, but it was the essential key to modern understanding of Ancient Egyptian literature and civilisation. The term Rosetta Stone is now used in other contexts as the name for the essential clue to a new field of knowledge. The Rosetta Stone is listed as "a stone of black granodiorite , bearing three inscriptions The Rosetta Stone is a fragment of a larger stele.
No additional fragments were found in later searches of the Rosetta site. The top register, composed of Egyptian hieroglyphs, suffered the most damage. Only the last 14 lines of the hieroglyphic text can be seen; all of them are broken on the right side, and 12 of them on the left. The following register of demotic text has survived best; it has 32 lines, of which the first 14 are slightly damaged on the right side. The final register of Greek text contains 54 lines, of which the first 27 survive in full; the rest are increasingly fragmentary due to a diagonal break at the bottom right of the stone.
The date is given as "4 Xandicus" in the Macedonian calendar and "18 Meshir " in the Egyptian calendar , which corresponds to March 27, BC. The decree was issued during a turbulent period in Egyptian history. Tlepolemus, in turn, was replaced as guardian in BC by Aristomenes of Alyzia , who was chief minister at the time of the Memphis decree.
Political forces beyond the borders of Egypt exacerbated the internal problems of the Ptolemaic kingdom. Philip had seized several islands and cities in Caria and Thrace , while the Battle of Panium BC had resulted in the transfer of Coele-Syria , including Judaea , from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids. The stele is a late example of a class of donation stelae, which depicts the reigning monarch granting a tax exemption to the resident priesthood.
In earlier periods, all such decrees were issued by the king himself, but the Memphis decree was issued by the priests, as the maintainers of traditional Egyptian culture. The decree concludes with the instruction that a copy was to be placed in every temple, inscribed in the "language of the gods" hieroglyphs , the "language of documents" demotic , and the "language of the Greeks" as used by the Ptolemaic government. Securing the favour of the priesthood was essential for the Ptolemaic kings to retain effective rule over the populace.
The High Priests of Memphis —where the king was crowned—were particularly important, as they were the highest religious authorities of the time and had influence throughout the kingdom. There exists no one definitive English translation of the decree because of the minor differences between the three original texts, and because modern understanding of the ancient languages continues to develop.
An up-to-date translation by R. Simpson appears on the British Museum website, based on the demotic text. Bevan 's full translation in The House of Ptolemy ,  based on the Greek text with footnote comments on variations between this and the two Egyptian texts. The stele almost certainly did not originate in the town of Rashid Rosetta where it was found, but more likely came from a temple site farther inland, possibly the royal town of Sais.
Later it was incorporated in the foundations of a fortress constructed by the Mameluke Sultan Qaitbay c. Two other inscriptions containing the same Memphis decree have been found since the discovery of the Rosetta Stone: Unlike the Rosetta Stone, the hieroglyphic texts of these other copies of the decree were relatively intact. The Rosetta Stone had been deciphered long before they were found, but later Egyptologists, including Wallis Budge , used these other copies to refine the reconstruction of the hieroglyphs that must have been used in the lost portions of the hieroglyphic text on the Rosetta Stone.
Napoleon 's campaign in Egypt came at and helped cause the beginning of a burst of Egyptomania in Europe, and especially France. A corps of technical experts savants , known as the Commission des Sciences et des Arts , accompanied the French expeditionary army to Egypt. On July 15, , French soldiers under the command of Colonel d'Hautpoul were strengthening the defences of Fort Julien , a couple of miles north-east of the Egyptian port city of Rosetta modern-day Rashid.
Lancret's report, dated July 19, , was read to a meeting of the Institute soon after July Bouchard, meanwhile, transported the stone to Cairo for examination by scholars. Napoleon himself inspected what had already begun to be called la Pierre de Rosette , the Rosetta Stone, shortly before his return to France in August The anonymous reporter expressed a hope that the stone might one day be the key to deciphering hieroglyphs. One of these experts was Jean-Joseph Marcel , a printer and gifted linguist, who is credited as the first to recognise that the middle text was written in the Egyptian Demotic script, rarely used for stone inscriptions and seldom seen by scholars at that time, rather than Syriac as had originally been thought.
The prints that resulted were taken to Paris by General Charles Dugua. Scholars in Europe were now able to see the inscriptions and attempt to read them. After Napoleon's departure, French troops held off British and Ottoman attacks for another 18 months. In March , the British landed at Aboukir Bay. Menou was now in command of the French expedition.
His troops, including the Commission, marched north towards the Mediterranean coast to meet the enemy, transporting the stone along with many other antiquities. He was defeated in battle, and the remnant of his army retreated to Alexandria where they were surrounded and besieged, the stone now inside the city. Menou surrendered on August After the surrender, a dispute arose over the fate of the French archaeological and scientific discoveries in Egypt, including the artefacts, biological specimens, notes, plans, and drawings collected by the members of the commission.
Menou refused to hand them over, claiming that they belonged to the Institute. Scholars Edward Daniel Clarke and William Richard Hamilton , newly arrived from England, agreed to examine the collections in Alexandria and claimed to have found many artefacts that the French had not revealed. In a letter home, Clarke said that "we found much more in their possession than was represented or imagined". Clarke and Hamilton pleaded the French scholars' case to Hutchinson, who finally agreed that items such as natural history specimens would be the scholars' private property.
Eventually an agreement was reached, and the transfer of the objects was incorporated into the Capitulation of Alexandria signed by representatives of the British , French , and Ottoman forces. It is not clear exactly how the stone was transferred into British hands, as contemporary accounts differ. Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner was to escort it to England, but he claimed later that he had personally seized it from Menou and carried it away on a gun-carriage.
In a much more detailed account, Edward Daniel Clarke stated that a French "officer and member of the Institute" had taken him, his student John Cripps, and Hamilton secretly into the back streets behind Menou's residence and revealed the stone hidden under protective carpets among Menou's baggage. According to Clarke, their informant feared that the stone might be stolen if French soldiers saw it.
Hutchinson was informed at once, and the stone was taken away—possibly by Turner and his gun-carriage. According to Turner's narrative, he and Hobart agreed that the stone should be presented to scholars at the Society of Antiquaries of London , of which Turner was a member, before its final deposit in the museum. It was first seen and discussed there at a meeting on March 11, In the Society created four plaster casts of the inscriptions, which were given to the universities of Oxford , Cambridge , and Edinburgh and to Trinity College Dublin.
Soon afterwards, prints of the inscriptions were made and circulated to European scholars. The stone has been exhibited almost continuously in the British Museum since June The Rosetta Stone was transferred to the sculpture gallery in shortly after Montagu House was demolished and replaced by the building that now houses the British Museum. The Rosetta Stone was originally displayed at a slight angle from the horizontal, and rested within a metal cradle that was made for it, which involved shaving off very small portions of its sides to ensure that the cradle fitted securely.
A replica of the Rosetta Stone is now available in the King's Library of the British Museum, without a case and free to touch, as it would have appeared to early 19th-century visitors. The museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London towards the end of the First World War in , and the Rosetta Stone was moved to safety, along with other portable objects of value. Prior to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone and its eventual decipherment, the ancient Egyptian language and script had not been understood since shortly before the fall of the Roman Empire.
The usage of the hieroglyphic script had become increasingly specialised even in the later Pharaonic period ; by the 4th century AD, few Egyptians were capable of reading them. Hieroglyphs retained their pictorial appearance, and classical authors emphasised this aspect, in sharp contrast to the Greek and Roman alphabets. In the 5th century , the priest Horapollo wrote Hieroglyphica , an explanation of almost glyphs. His work was believed to be authoritative, yet it was misleading in many ways, and this and other works were a lasting impediment to the understanding of Egyptian writing.
Dhul-Nun al-Misri and Ibn Wahshiyya were the first historians to study hieroglyphs, by comparing them to the contemporary Coptic language used by Coptic priests in their time. The Greek text on the Rosetta Stone provided the starting point. Ancient Greek was widely known to scholars, but they were not familiar with details of its use in the Hellenistic period as a government language in Ptolemaic Egypt; large-scale discoveries of Greek papyri were a long way in the future.
Thus, the earliest translations of the Greek text of the stone show the translators still struggling with the historical context and with administrative and religious jargon. Stephen Weston verbally presented an English translation of the Greek text at a Society of Antiquaries meeting in April Meanwhile, two of the lithographic copies made in Egypt had reached the Institut de France in Paris in There, librarian and antiquarian Gabriel de La Porte du Theil set to work on a translation of the Greek, but he was dispatched elsewhere on Napoleon's orders almost immediately, and he left his unfinished work in the hands of colleague Hubert-Pascal Ameilhon.
Ameilhon produced the first published translations of the Greek text in , in both Latin and French to ensure that they would circulate widely. He produced a skilful suggested reconstruction, which was soon being circulated by the Society of Antiquaries alongside its prints of the inscription. He called it "cursive Coptic" because he was convinced that it was used to record some form of the Coptic language the direct descendant of Ancient Egyptian , although it had few similarities with the later Coptic script.
He realised that the middle text was in this same script. They attempted to identify the points where Greek names ought to occur within this unknown text, by comparing it with the Greek. Silvestre de Sacy eventually gave up work on the stone, but he was to make another contribution. Thus, when Thomas Young , foreign secretary of the Royal Society of London , wrote to him about the stone in , Silvestre de Sacy suggested in reply that in attempting to read the hieroglyphic text, Young might look for cartouches that ought to contain Greek names and try to identify phonetic characters in them.
Young did so, with two results that together paved the way for the final decipherment. In the hieroglyphic text, he discovered the phonetic characters " p t o l m e s " in today's transliteration " p t w l m y s " that were used to write the Greek name " Ptolemaios ". He also noticed that these characters resembled the equivalent ones in the Demotic script, and went on to note as many as 80 similarities between the hieroglyphic and Demotic texts on the stone, an important discovery because the two scripts were previously thought to be entirely different from one another.
This led him to deduce correctly that the Demotic script was only partly phonetic, also consisting of ideographic characters imitated from hieroglyphs. Champollion saw copies of the brief hieroglyphic and Greek inscriptions of the Philae obelisk in , on which William John Bankes had tentatively noted the names "Ptolemaios" and "Kleopatra" in both languages.
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The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic script and Demotic script, respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek. As the decree has only minor differences between the three versions, the Rosetta Stone proved to be the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs, thereby opening a window into ancient Egyptian history. The stone, carved during the Hellenistic period , is believed to have originally been displayed within a temple , possibly at nearby Sais.
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This is a list of English translations of the main works attributed to Homer , the Iliad and Odyssey. Translations are ordered chronologically by date of first publication, with first lines often provided to illustrate the style of the translation.
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Find similarities across all translators. They are likely to be correct. Double-check spelling, grammar, punctuation. Translators work best when there are no errors or typos. If words are different , search our dictionary to understand why and pick the right word. If phrases are different , try searching our examples to help pick the right phrase. Log in Sign up.
How to tell if a guy likes you, translating man-speak
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