Conflict adolescent dating relationships inventory

Training in conflict resolution strategies is a goal in different intervention contexts, and the Conflict Resolution Styles Inventory is a proven, useful tool for assessing these skills. Two studies were conducted, one aimed at analyzing psychometric properties of this instrument, and the other at verifying its ability to discriminate between violent and non-violent adolescent dating partners. In the first study, with adolescents, confirmatory factor analyzes were performed with the two subscales self and partner. The second study, with 1, adolescents, tested whether the factorial structure obtained discriminates between levels of dating violence involvement.

Development and validation of the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory.

Training in conflict resolution strategies is a goal in different intervention contexts, and the Conflict Resolution Styles Inventory is a proven, useful tool for assessing these skills. Two studies were conducted, one aimed at analyzing psychometric properties of this instrument, and the other at verifying its ability to discriminate between violent and non-violent adolescent dating partners.

In the first study, with adolescents, confirmatory factor analyzes were performed with the two subscales self and partner. The second study, with 1, adolescents, tested whether the factorial structure obtained discriminates between levels of dating violence involvement. Besides verifying the adequacy of items, the results of the first study showed the same three-factor structure in both versions: The second study demonstrated the discriminative capacity of both scales.

The final tool, which consisted of 13 items with a good internal consistency, may be useful for assessing the effectiveness of interventions to improve conflict resolution skills, as well as for screening and classification purposes.. El segundo estudio, con 1. Defined as interpersonal behaviors used to deal with disagreements, conflict resolution strategies were initially classified into constructive and destructive styles.

Starting from this point, scholars have attempted to describe conflict management styles in more detail.. Initially, the scale consisted of four conflict resolution styles: Subsequently, Kurdek depicted three styles instead of four. Conflict engagement and withdrawal appeared in both, but the third factor varied from compliance Kurdek, to positive Kurdek, The CRSI has been used across different romantic relationships opposite and same-sex couples, with or without children , and has proved able to predict changes in couples.

Training individuals in conflict resolution strategies is an important goal in different intervention contexts, and is also a common target in programs to prevent teen dating violence TDV. In Spain, there are no scales that have been adapted to assess different conflict resolution styles in adolescent dating relationships. However, these instruments do not discriminate between different strategies, and some of the items are interpreted as indicators of psychological aggression e.

A twofold purpose guides the studies described below: Specifically, the relationships between conflict resolution strategies and trait anxiety were examined. Also, research has demonstrated a robust association between anxiety and quality of interaction in adolescent partners Exner-Cortens, While teens without emotional problems are more capable of using negotiating tactics that lead to acceptable solutions for both partners Ha et al.

Participants were adolescents Also, nine teens stated they were bi-sexually oriented, and three did not report any sexual orientation. At the time of the study, The mean length of their dating relationships was 9. Positive, Conflict engagement, Withdrawal, and Compliance. Both subscales ranged from 1 never to 5 always. In the first version of the CRSI, Kurdek showed good face validity, evidence for construct validity, and evidence for concurrent and predictive criterion-related validity.

Also, moderate correlations from -. Cronbach's alphas for the composite scores of both partners were between. Other researchers have also found evidence of a good internal consistency of the CRSI in different samples. Ha et al. Two independent translators, with a good knowledge of both languages, performed the translation from English to Spanish. These two versions were subsequently compared and any discrepancy discussed to reach a consensus on the items.

From this set of items, a bilingual translator, unrelated to the previous process, proceeded to translate the scale back from Spanish to English. Finally, the quality of the translation was assessed by comparison with the initial release, while considering possible intercultural differences.. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the university to which the authors belong.

Also, permission from the families was requested. Participation was voluntary and anonymity was ensured in advance. Three models were tested for each of the two subscales, and then compared with each other to see which best fit the data: For these latter models, item loadings were left free to vary on the subscales proposed, and were fixed at zero for the remaining subscales. Given that virtually any deviation from perfection may produce a statistically significant chi-square with a large sample, three fit indices independent of sample size were also used: The goodness of fit of the models was determined according to the method proposed by Hu and Bentler , who suggested a two-index presentation format.

This always includes the SRMR. To calculate reliability indices and to assess convergent validity, the SPSS v. To test whether the factor structures proposed by Kurdek were suitable for the data, a CFA was performed for each model and subscale Table 1. All the models allowed correlation between the three factors.. Goodness of fit indices for each tested model..

Conflict engagement; F2: Positive; F3: Withdrawal; F4: Finally, Model C Kurdek, excludes factor 4 Compliance of the four original factors. The CFA also showed that all items had loadings on the expected factors over. Path Diagram of Model E with three factors. CRSI-Self scores correspond to standardized factor loadings and intercorrelations among the factors..

CRSI-Partner scores correspond to standardized factor loadings and intercorrelations among the factors.. While analyzing the overall internal consistency of both subscales, none of the elements revealed inappropriate behavior Table 2. The standard deviations are almost 1, so it is possible to assume adequate variability in the ratings. All items show a corrected homogeneity index greater than.

The subscales exhibited adequate reliability, reaching Cronbach's alphas of. While no alpha increase would be observed if any item was deleted in the former subscale, two items could be deleted in the latter case.. The factor scores in each of the two subscales were calculated. Pearson product-moment coefficients were computed for the total score of STAI and for each of the factors. Subsequently, ANOVA were performed to detect significant differences in conflict resolution strategies used by participants with low, medium, and high anxiety..

Results were consistent with what was expected, showing the same pattern in both subscales. While high anxiety adolescents showed greater engagement and withdrawal than low and medium anxiety ones, there were no differences regarding positive strategy Table ANOVA and post-hoc for factor and anxiety group.. TDV is often characterized by be moderate and bidirectional Viejo et al. Moreover, effective prevention programs in different areas are oriented towards strengthening positive skills and not only reducing risks American Psychological Association, Thus, having instruments to measure conflict resolution strategies is critical to assess relational dynamics from a preventive point of view.

In this sense, treating TDV exclusively as a problem of gender inequality may be a limited contribution to preventing the problem, as long as teens are not provided with adequate tools to do things right. According to these ideas, the ability of the CRSI to discriminate between violent and non-violent dating partners was tested.. All claimed to have or have had at least one dating partner Regarding their sexual orientation, The dating relationships had lasted an average of 9.

This subscale consists of 14 items that measure: All responses ranged from 0 never to 3 very often. Cronbach's alpha reached. Also, prior authorization was requested from educational centers and families. All students responded to the same questionnaire, and all received identical instructions. The data set was collected in the classrooms, with participation being voluntary.

However, the data from participants who had never had a dating relationship were later excluded from the analysis.. First, the 33rd and 66th percentile composite scores on TDV perpetration and victimization were determined separately. Subsequently, ROC curves were generated, confirming that the strategies withdrawal and conflict engagement show great discriminatory power, while the positive resolution strategy shows no ability to discriminate, neither victimization nor perpetration Figure 3.

Discrimination between high and low perpetrators showed a sensitivity of In victimization case, it had a sensitivity of As shown in Table 4 , significant between-subject effects were detected for both TDV perpetration and victimization. Those who scored higher in victimization or perpetration reported conflict engagement and withdrawal, both by their partners and themselves, more often than those who scored lower.

Moreover, no significant differences were detected regarding positive strategy.. Comparison between conflict resolution strategies reported by participants high or low in TDV perpetration and victimization.. F Lev: Levene's test. Given that the structure of the CRSI has changed in successive studies Kurdek, , , , the different dimensional possibilities were examined. CFAs were performed with the two subscales separately, and then compared to each other.

The Spanish adolescent final version of the CRSI shows a common dimensional structure for both subscales, composed of three factors with 13 items in total. It is shorter than the original because some items have been removed to ensure consistency and homogeneity of the factors Appendix. The dimensions detected are Positive, Conflict engagement, and Withdrawal. This three-dimensional structure partially replicates that depicted by Kurdek and finds support in other studies as discussed below.

Compliance has been elusive for researchers, showing low reliability.

The objective of the present studies was to develop and validate a item short form of the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI; Wolfe. Psychol Assess. Jun;13(2) Development and validation of the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory. Wolfe DA(1), Scott K.

Copyright American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. Dating violence prevention was integrated with core lessons about healthy relationships, sexual health, and substance use prevention using interactive exercises. Relationship skills to promote safer decision making with peers and dating partners were emphasized. Control schools targeted similar objectives without training or materials.

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Given the high prevalence of dating violence among adolescent and the significant consequences associated with adolescent dating violence, including its co-occurrence with other problematic behaviors such as alcohol and substance abuse, standardized measures to assess adolescent dating violence are essential. In study one, the short form CADRI-S was derived from a sample of high school students, and its psychometric properties were analyzed. Results showed acceptable reliability indices and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a good model fi t.

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In recent years, we have noticed increasing interest in analysing the nature of aggressive behaviours that occur in romantic relationships of some adolescents: In this context, this instrumental study was made with a sample of participants between 15 and 19 years old, with the purpose of examining the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory CADRI ; this is a self-report measure which was designed to assess five types of intimate violence in adolescent dating relationships: The results showed that Threatening behaviour is the only one factor that is not valid in our context and also that the reliability indices for the different subscales and factors are quite similar to the original instrument, although the internal consistence of any of them are not very high. Finally, we conclude that the CADRI Spanish version seen to be reliably and valid overall, but it is recommended that some items should be changed in order to improve its psychometric properties. Palabras clave: Dating violence.

Стратмор медленно повернулся к Сьюзан. Тоже неподвижная, она стояла у дверей шифровалки. Стратмор посмотрел на ее залитое слезами лицо, и ему показалось, что вся она засветилась в сиянии дневного света. Ангел, подумал. Ему захотелось увидеть ее глаза, он надеялся найти в них избавление. Но в них была только смерть. Смерть ее веры в. Любовь и честь были забыты.

Мидж нажала несколько клавиш.

Уже в дверях он грустно улыбнулся: - Вы все же поосторожнее. ГЛАВА 67 - Сьюзан? - Тяжело дыша, Хейл приблизил к ней свое лицо.

Но послушай: канадец сказал, что буквы не складывались во что-то вразумительное. Японские иероглифы не спутаешь с латиницей. Он сказал, что выгравированные буквы выглядят так, будто кошка прошлась по клавишам пишущей машинки. - Коммандер, не думаете же вы… - Сьюзан расхохоталась. Но Стратмор не дал ей договорить. - Сьюзан, это же абсолютно ясно. Танкадо выгравировал ключ Цифровой крепости на кольце.

Золото долговечно. Что бы он ни делал - спал, стоял под душем, ел, - ключ всегда при нем, в любую минуту готовый для опубликования. - На пальце? - усомнилась Сьюзан.  - У всех на виду. - Почему бы и .

Беккер даже прервал свое занятие и посмотрел на лейтенанта. Solo el escroto. Он с трудом сдержал улыбку. - Только лишь мошонка. Офицер гордо кивнул: - Да.

Человек благоговейно потянулся к закрепленной на брючном ремне батарее: эта машинка, подарок одного из клиентов, подарила ему новую жизнь. Теперь он мог принимать заказы в любой точке мира. Сообщения поступали мгновенно, и их нельзя было отследить. Он торопливо повернул выключатель. Стекла очков блеснули, и его пальцы снова задвигались в воздухе. Он, как обычно, записал имена жертв. Контакты на кончиках пальцев замкнулись, и на линзах очков, подобно бестелесным духам, замелькали буквы.

Вы меня не знаете, молодой человек. Я рисковал всю свою жизнь. Хотите меня испытать. Что ж, попробуйте! - Он начал нажимать кнопки мобильника.  - Ты меня недооценил, сынок. Никто позволивший себе угрожать жизни моего сотрудника не выйдет отсюда.  - Он поднес телефон к уху и рявкнул: - Коммутатор. Соедините меня со службой безопасности.

Он… он был?. - Да, убит. - Но… но это невозможно! - У немца перехватило дыхание.  - Я там. У него случился инфаркт. Я сам. Никакой крови.

Увидев эту цифру, Бринкерхофф испытал настоящий шок. 999 999 999. Он ахнул. Миллиард долларов. Соблазнительный образ Кармен тут же улетучился.

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